Menopause and female fertility loss

Physiological

Gender

Male

Data Availability

Period at which this change occurs is not accurately known

Tissues

  • female reproductive system Changes
    • Anatomical System
      • anatomical site
        • head and neck
        • thorax
          • thoracic wall
        • abdomen
        • pelvis
        • perineum
        • upper limb
        • lower limb
        • whole body
        • adipose tissue
        • mucosa
        • spine
      • cardiovascular system
        • heart
          • atrium
          • ventricle
            • left ventricle
          • endocardium
          • myocardium
          • pericardium
          • cardiac valve
          • cardiac conducting system
        • artery
          • aorta
          • arterial intima
          • arterial media
          • arterial adventitia
          • carotid artery
          • coronary artery
        • vein
          • venous intima
          • venous media
          • venous adventitia
        • capillary
      • respiratory system
        • nose
        • sinus
        • larynx
        • trachea
        • bronchus
        • lung
          • alveolus
        • pleura
        • diaphragm
      • hematological system
        • bone marrow
          • hematopoietic stem cells
          • mesenchymal stem cell
        • blood
          • plasma
          • myeloid progenitor cell
      • lymphoreticular system
        • lymph
        • lymph node
        • tonsil
        • spleen
      • alimentary system
        • oral cavity
          • tongue
          • salivary gland
          • tooth
          • gum
        • pharynx
          • nasopharynx
          • oropharynx
          • hypopharynx
        • oesophagus
        • stomach
          • gastric mucosa
        • intestine
          • small intestine
            • duodenum
            • jejunum
            • ileum
          • vermiform appendix
          • large intestine
            • colorectal
              • colon
                • appendix
              • rectum
            • anus
            • cecum
        • mesentery
        • omentum
        • peritoneum
        • liver and biliary system
          • liver
          • gall bladder
          • bile duct
        • pancreas
          • exocrine pancreas
      • urogenital system
        • urinary system
          • kidney
            • nephron
              • renal corpuscle
                • glomerus
              • renal tubule
                • renal proximal convoluted tubule
                • renal distal convoluted tubule
                • loop of Henle
                • renal collecting duct
            • renal vasculature
            • glomerulus
          • ureter
          • bladder
          • urethra
        • reproductive system
          • male reproductive system
            • testis
              • seminiferous tubule
            • epididymis
            • prostate
            • vas deferens
            • penis
              • glans
              • foreskin
          • female reproductive system
            • ovary
            • uterine tube
            • uterus
              • cervix
              • endometrium
              • myometrium
            • vagina
            • vulva
            • breast
              • mammary gland
      • endocrine system
        • endocrine pancreas
          • islets of Langerhans
        • pineal gland
        • pituitary gland
        • thyroid
        • parathyroid
        • adrenal gland
          • adrenal cortex
          • adrenal medulla
      • musculoskeletal system
        • bone
          • ulna
          • femur
        • cartilage
        • joint
          • synovium
          • ligament
          • meniscus
        • muscle
          • skeletal muscle
          • smooth muscle
        • tendon
        • fascia
      • integument system
        • skin
          • epidermis
          • dermis
        • appendages
          • hair follicle
          • hair
          • nail bed
          • nail
          • sweat gland
          • sebaceous gland
        • subcutaneous
      • nervous system
        • central nervous system
          • brain
            • cerebrum
              • cerebral cortex
                • frontal lobe
                  • prefrontal cortex
                • parietal lobe
                • temporal lobe
                • occipital lobe
                • visual
                • insula
                • olfactory bulb
                • anterior olfactory nucleus
                • lateral olfactory stria
                • medial olfactory stria
                • olfactory tubercle
                • primary olfactory cortex
                • secondary olfactory cortex
                • hippocampus
                • parahippocampal gyrus
              • basal nuclei
            • hypothalamus
              • preoptic nucleus
              • supraoptic nucleus
              • suprachiasmatic nucleus
              • paraventricular nucleus
              • infundibular nucleus
              • anterior nucleus
              • dorsomedial nucleus
              • ventromedial nucleus
              • lateral nucleus
              • posterior nucleus
              • premamillary nucleus
              • tuberomamillary nucleus
              • medial mamillary nucleus
              • lateral mamillary nucleus
              • lateral tuberal nucleus
            • brain stem
              • midbrain
                • crus cerebri
                • colliculi
                • substantia nigra
                • red nucleus
                • periaqueductal grey matter
                • oculomotor nucleus
                • trochlear nucleus
                • mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus
              • pons
                • vestibular nuclei
                • cochlear nuclei
                • superior olivary nucleus
                • trapezoid nucleus
                • nucleus of the lateral lemniscus
                • abducent nucleus
                • facial nucleus
                • salivatory nuclei
                • trigeminal nucleus
            • cerebellum
              • cerebellum cortex
              • cerebellum nuclei
            • tract
              • corpus callosum
            • ventricular system
            • cerebrospinal fluid
            • meninges
            • white matter
            • grey matter
            • blood brain barrier
          • spinal cord
        • peripheral nervous system
          • visual apparatus
            • globe
            • eyelid
            • lacrimal gland
            • conjunctiva
            • cornea
            • sclera
            • lens
            • vitreous humor
            • iris
            • ciliary body
            • choroid
            • retina
            • optic nerve
            • trabecular meshwork
          • auditory apparatus
            • external ear
            • middle ear
            • tympanum
            • auditory tube
            • auditory ossicle
            • internal ear
              • osseous labyrinth
                • cochlea
                  • spiral organ of Corti
                • semicircular canal
                • vestibule
              • membranous labyrinth
          • olfactory apparatus
          • peripheral nerve
          • ganglion
          • sympathetic chain
      • immune system
        • thymus
          • T cell progenitor
        • lymphocytes
        • B cell
        • memory B cell
        • T cell
        • T regulatory cell
        • stromal cell
        • naïve T cell
        • neutrophil
        • macrophage
        • natural killer cell
        • dendritic cell
        • leukocyte
  • endocrine system Changes
    • Anatomical System
      • anatomical site
        • head and neck
        • thorax
          • thoracic wall
        • abdomen
        • pelvis
        • perineum
        • upper limb
        • lower limb
        • whole body
        • adipose tissue
        • mucosa
        • spine
      • cardiovascular system
        • heart
          • atrium
          • ventricle
            • left ventricle
          • endocardium
          • myocardium
          • pericardium
          • cardiac valve
          • cardiac conducting system
        • artery
          • aorta
          • arterial intima
          • arterial media
          • arterial adventitia
          • carotid artery
          • coronary artery
        • vein
          • venous intima
          • venous media
          • venous adventitia
        • capillary
      • respiratory system
        • nose
        • sinus
        • larynx
        • trachea
        • bronchus
        • lung
          • alveolus
        • pleura
        • diaphragm
      • hematological system
        • bone marrow
          • hematopoietic stem cells
          • mesenchymal stem cell
        • blood
          • plasma
          • myeloid progenitor cell
      • lymphoreticular system
        • lymph
        • lymph node
        • tonsil
        • spleen
      • alimentary system
        • oral cavity
          • tongue
          • salivary gland
          • tooth
          • gum
        • pharynx
          • nasopharynx
          • oropharynx
          • hypopharynx
        • oesophagus
        • stomach
          • gastric mucosa
        • intestine
          • small intestine
            • duodenum
            • jejunum
            • ileum
          • vermiform appendix
          • large intestine
            • colorectal
              • colon
                • appendix
              • rectum
            • anus
            • cecum
        • mesentery
        • omentum
        • peritoneum
        • liver and biliary system
          • liver
          • gall bladder
          • bile duct
        • pancreas
          • exocrine pancreas
      • urogenital system
        • urinary system
          • kidney
            • nephron
              • renal corpuscle
                • glomerus
              • renal tubule
                • renal proximal convoluted tubule
                • renal distal convoluted tubule
                • loop of Henle
                • renal collecting duct
            • renal vasculature
            • glomerulus
          • ureter
          • bladder
          • urethra
        • reproductive system
          • male reproductive system
            • testis
              • seminiferous tubule
            • epididymis
            • prostate
            • vas deferens
            • penis
              • glans
              • foreskin
          • female reproductive system
            • ovary
            • uterine tube
            • uterus
              • cervix
              • endometrium
              • myometrium
            • vagina
            • vulva
            • breast
              • mammary gland
      • endocrine system
        • endocrine pancreas
          • islets of Langerhans
        • pineal gland
        • pituitary gland
        • thyroid
        • parathyroid
        • adrenal gland
          • adrenal cortex
          • adrenal medulla
      • musculoskeletal system
        • bone
          • ulna
          • femur
        • cartilage
        • joint
          • synovium
          • ligament
          • meniscus
        • muscle
          • skeletal muscle
          • smooth muscle
        • tendon
        • fascia
      • integument system
        • skin
          • epidermis
          • dermis
        • appendages
          • hair follicle
          • hair
          • nail bed
          • nail
          • sweat gland
          • sebaceous gland
        • subcutaneous
      • nervous system
        • central nervous system
          • brain
            • cerebrum
              • cerebral cortex
                • frontal lobe
                  • prefrontal cortex
                • parietal lobe
                • temporal lobe
                • occipital lobe
                • visual
                • insula
                • olfactory bulb
                • anterior olfactory nucleus
                • lateral olfactory stria
                • medial olfactory stria
                • olfactory tubercle
                • primary olfactory cortex
                • secondary olfactory cortex
                • hippocampus
                • parahippocampal gyrus
              • basal nuclei
            • hypothalamus
              • preoptic nucleus
              • supraoptic nucleus
              • suprachiasmatic nucleus
              • paraventricular nucleus
              • infundibular nucleus
              • anterior nucleus
              • dorsomedial nucleus
              • ventromedial nucleus
              • lateral nucleus
              • posterior nucleus
              • premamillary nucleus
              • tuberomamillary nucleus
              • medial mamillary nucleus
              • lateral mamillary nucleus
              • lateral tuberal nucleus
            • brain stem
              • midbrain
                • crus cerebri
                • colliculi
                • substantia nigra
                • red nucleus
                • periaqueductal grey matter
                • oculomotor nucleus
                • trochlear nucleus
                • mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus
              • pons
                • vestibular nuclei
                • cochlear nuclei
                • superior olivary nucleus
                • trapezoid nucleus
                • nucleus of the lateral lemniscus
                • abducent nucleus
                • facial nucleus
                • salivatory nuclei
                • trigeminal nucleus
            • cerebellum
              • cerebellum cortex
              • cerebellum nuclei
            • tract
              • corpus callosum
            • ventricular system
            • cerebrospinal fluid
            • meninges
            • white matter
            • grey matter
            • blood brain barrier
          • spinal cord
        • peripheral nervous system
          • visual apparatus
            • globe
            • eyelid
            • lacrimal gland
            • conjunctiva
            • cornea
            • sclera
            • lens
            • vitreous humor
            • iris
            • ciliary body
            • choroid
            • retina
            • optic nerve
            • trabecular meshwork
          • auditory apparatus
            • external ear
            • middle ear
            • tympanum
            • auditory tube
            • auditory ossicle
            • internal ear
              • osseous labyrinth
                • cochlea
                  • spiral organ of Corti
                • semicircular canal
                • vestibule
              • membranous labyrinth
          • olfactory apparatus
          • peripheral nerve
          • ganglion
          • sympathetic chain
      • immune system
        • thymus
          • T cell progenitor
        • lymphocytes
        • B cell
        • memory B cell
        • T cell
        • T regulatory cell
        • stromal cell
        • naïve T cell
        • neutrophil
        • macrophage
        • natural killer cell
        • dendritic cell
        • leukocyte

References

    Referencing provided by LibAge

    External Links

    Description

    For the first few years after menarche the menses tends to be irregular. Thereafter and throughout the middle reproductive years, cycles are regular, although they become progressively shorter with advancing age primarily owing to a shortening of follicular phase. In the 2-8 year period preceding the menopause, cycles again become highly variable, ranging from very short to very long. Fertility begins to decline many years prior to onset of irregular menses, being maximum in mid- to late twenties and decreasing steadily until menopause. Age-associated alterations in ovary, neuroendocrine system and uterus may all influence changing pattern of menses as well as declining fertility. The follicle number declines with age.

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